By placing the light at the base of a wall or hedge the light 'washes' over the surface creating a soft glow effect. However this can also be achieved by 'lifting' the light at certain angles to wash the desired area eg. Patio area.
This is achieved by placing the light in front of the object you wish to illuminate. Depending on how high the light fitting is secured will depend on how dramatic the shadow will appear.
This effect can be very appealing as the subject is lit from two sides, which not only highlights the feature but also softens it at the same time.
Downlighting is useful to pick out a particular plant or feature. This is also useful for creating interest with shadows etc. This can also be employed as a 'security' effect, to light doorways/entrances or for general luminance where entertainment may take place.
This is very romantic and effective way of using lighting. This effect requires the positioning of a light in a tree for instance. The ray of light is broken up to reveal a dappled effect on the ground. This can be applied in other areas but a tree is often the best way.
Path / Step lighting
The idea of path / step lighting is to create interest and a desire to 'go an see' what is further down the trail. There are various ways of achieving this by using low levelling lighting or raised to reveal more detail. Another good other reason for this is to make the walkway safe.
Uplighting can be achieved in various ways by placing a light at ground level. Two effective ways are by placing the light at the base of a tree to wash up the trunk into the canopy or to illuminate a garden building.
By placing a light in the water it can produce some wonderful effects. Moving water is especially appealing with every ripple being enhanced by the light. Fish 'crossing' the beam of light produces flashes of colour and shadow. Using the light in the water to focus on a fountain or feature is also possible and helps to keep the light fitting concealed in the water. The other major reason for lights in and around water is the reflections that can be produced by using the water surface as a natural mirror.